Domain Name System
International Domain Name (non-Latin)
Domain Name and URL
A URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is a complete web address that consists of multiple parts, including the protocol (such as "http" or "https"), the domain name (such as "google.com"), and the specific page or resource being accessed.
So the domain name is just one part of the URL and is used to identify the website that is being accessed. In contrast, a domain name is a unique, human-readable string of characters that is used to identify and locate a website on the Internet. It is the main part of a website's address or URL and typically includes a top-level domain (TLD), such as ".com," as well as a second-level domain (SLD), which identifies the specific website or organization, and so while a URL is a complete web address that includes multiple components, a domain name is just one part of the URL and is used to identify the website that is being accessed.
A naked domain refers to a domain name that is accessed without any subdomains or prefixes. For example, "example.com" is a naked domain, while "www.example.com" is not.
A subdomain is a subset of a larger domain, which can be used to create separate websites or sections of a website that are distinct from the main domain. For example, if the main domain is "example.com," a subdomain might be "blog.example.com" or "store.example.com". In this case, "blog" and "store" are both subdomains of the "example.com" domain.
Emoji domains work by encoding the emoji characters into Punycode, which is a standardized way of representing non-ASCII characters in domain names using ASCII characters. Punycode is used to convert the Unicode characters used in emojis into a format that can be recognized by the Domain Name System (DNS), which is the system that translates domain names into IP addresses and routes Internet traffic to the correct server. The Punycode conversion process involves breaking down the emoji characters into a series of ASCII characters, which are then combined with special Punycode markers to create a unique domain name. For example, the emoji "🎉" can be encoded as "xn--l28h" using Punycode.
ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) is a nonprofit organization that oversees the global coordination of the Internet's domain name system (DNS), IP address allocation, protocol parameters, and other critical Internet resources. ICANN's mission is to ensure the stable and secure operation of the Internet's unique identifier systems. Registrars and registries are organizations that work with ICANN to manage domain name registration and administration. Registrars are companies that provide domain name registration services directly to consumers, while registries are organizations that manage the domain name database for a specific top-level domain (TLD), such as ".com" or ".org."
ICANN sets policies and standards for registrars and registries, and accredits them to ensure they meet certain requirements and follow certain rules. This helps to ensure the integrity and security of the domain name system and protect the interests of consumers and Internet users. ICANN's relationship with consumers is indirect, as it primarily interacts with registrars and registries, who in turn provide services to consumers. However, ICANN is responsible for ensuring that registrars and registries operate in a fair and transparent manner, and it provides mechanisms for resolving disputes and enforcing compliance with its policies and standards. ICANN also solicits feedback and input from consumers and other stakeholders through public comment periods and other engagement processes.
Unicode is a non-profit organization that is responsible for developing and maintaining the Unicode Standard, which is a character encoding system that enables the representation of text in all the world's writing systems. The Unicode Standard assigns unique code points to each character, including letters, digits, punctuation marks, and other symbols, to ensure that text can be accurately represented and exchanged across different software platforms and devices.
Unicode's relationship with ICANN registrars, registries, and consumers is indirect but significant. ICANN (the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) is responsible for managing the Internet's domain name system (DNS), which includes the assignment of domain names and IP addresses. Domain names are registered and managed by domain name registrars and registries, who are responsible for ensuring that the domain name system operates smoothly and that domain names are registered and managed according to established policies and procedures.
Unicode's role in this ecosystem is to provide a standardized way of representing text in domain names and other applications. Unicode characters can be used in domain names, subject to certain restrictions and guidelines set by ICANN and other regulatory bodies. For example, domain names can only contain certain characters, and there are limits on the length and format of domain names.
Unicode plays a key role in enabling the representation of text in domain names and ensuring that domain names can be accurately resolved and accessed by users around the world.
Some domain names are reserved by The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), this is a department of the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) that is responsible for managing the global coordination of the Domain Name System (DNS), Internet Protocol (IP) address allocation, and other Internet-related numerical resources.
In relation to ICANN, IANA performs key technical functions such as managing the root zone of the DNS, which is the highest level of the DNS hierarchy and contains information about top-level domains (TLDs) such as ".com," ".org," and ".net."
IANA is also responsible for allocating IP address blocks and Autonomous System Numbers (ASNs) to regional Internet registries (RIRs), which in turn distribute them to Internet service providers (ISPs) and other organizations. In relation to Unicode, IANA works with the Unicode Consortium to manage the assignment of unique code points for characters used in the DNS and other Internet protocols. This includes assigning Punycode encodings for non-ASCII characters used in domain names, such as emojis.
In relation to registrars and registries, IANA plays a key role in the management of the DNS root zone and TLDs. It works with domain name registries and registrars to ensure that they follow technical and policy requirements related to the registration and management of domain names. In relation to consumers, IANA's work helps to ensure the stable and secure operation of the global Internet infrastructure, which is essential for the functioning of a wide range of online services and applications. It also helps to ensure that domain names are registered and managed in a fair, transparent, and reliable manner, which helps to protect the interests of consumers who rely on these names to access websites and online services.